This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribosea sugar component of DNA has the empirical formula C 5 H 10 O 4. The term is most common in biochemistrywhere it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugarsstarchand cellulose.
The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest lower molecular weight carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms.
Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy e. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes e. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune systemfertilizationpreventing pathogenesisblood clottingand development.
Starch and sugars are the most important carbohydrates in human diet.
They are found in a wide variety of natural and processed foods. Starch is a polysaccharide. It is abundant in cereals wheat, maize, ricepotatoes, and processed food based on cereal flour
Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating as bread, pizza or pasta. Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beetslactose abundant in milkglucose and fructose, both of which occur naturally in honeymany fruits, and some vegetables.
Table milk, or honey are often added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam, biscuits and cakes.
Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber. Although it is not digestible, insoluble dietary fiber helps to maintain a healthy digestive system  by easing defecation. Other polysaccharides contained in dietary fiber include resistant starch and inulinwhich feed some bacteria in the microbiota of the large intestineand are metabolized by these bacteria to yield short-chain fatty acids.
In scientific literature, the term "carbohydrate" has many synonyms, like "sugar" in the broad sense"saccharide", "ose",  "glucide",  "hydrate of carbon" or " polyhydroxy compounds with aldehyde or ketone ". Some of these terms, specially "carbohydrate" and "sugar", are also used with meanings. food science and Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating many informal contexts, the term "carbohydrate" often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch such as cereals, bread and pasta or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar found in candy, jamsand desserts.
Often in lists of nutritional informationsuch as the USDA National Nutrient Databasethe term "carbohydrate" or "carbohydrate by difference" is used for everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol. It also includes dietary fiber which is a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy kilocalorieseven though it is often included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating sugar.
In the strict sense, " sugar " is applied for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Formerly the name "carbohydrate" was used Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating chemistry for any compound with the formula C m H 2 O n.
Following this definition, some chemists considered formaldehyde CH 2 O to be the simplest carbohydrate, 
Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating others claimed title for glycolaldehyde.
For example, while the above representative formulas would seem to capture Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating commonly known carbohydrates, ubiquitous and abundant carbohydrates often deviate from this.
For example, carbohydrates often display chemical groups such as: Natural saccharides are generally built of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula CH 2 O n where n is three or more.
Examples of monosaccharides are glucosefructoseand glyceraldehydes. However, some biological substances commonly called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula e. Monosaccharides can be linked together into what are called polysaccharides or oligosaccharides in a large Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating of ways.
Many carbohydrates contain one or more modified monosaccharide units that have had one or more groups replaced or removed. For example, deoxyribosea component of DNAis a modified version
Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating ribose ; chitin is composed of repeating units of glucosaminea nitrogen -containing form of glucose. Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, acids, their
Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating derivatives and their polymers having linkages of the acetal Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating. They may be classified according to their degree of polymerization, and may be divided initially into three principal groups, namely sugars, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides .
Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. They are aldehydes or ketones with two or more hydroxyl groups.
Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating are important fuel molecules as well as building blocks for nucleic acids. Note position of the hydroxyl group red or green on the anomeric carbon relative to the CH 2 OH group bound to carbon 5: Monosaccharides are classified according to three different characteristics: If the carbonyl group is an aldehydethe monosaccharide is an aldose ; if the carbonyl group is a ketonethe monosaccharide is a ketose.
Monosaccharides with three carbon Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating are called triosesthose with four are called tetrosesfive are called pentosessix are hexosesand so on. For example, glucose is an aldohexose a six-carbon aldehyderibose is an aldopentose a five-carbon aldehydeand fructose is a ketohexose a six-carbon
Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating. Each carbon atom bearing a hydroxyl group -OHwith the exception of the first and last carbons, are asymmetricmaking them stereo centers with two configurations each R or S.
Because of this asymmetry, a number of isomers may exist for any given monosaccharide formula. In the case of glyceraldehydesan aldotriose, there is one pair of possible stereoisomers, which are enantiomers and epimers. The assignment of D or L is made according to the orientation of the asymmetric carbon furthest from the carbonyl group: The "D-" and "L-" prefixes should not be confused with "d-" or "l-", which indicate the direction that the sugar rotates plane polarized light. This usage of "d-" and "l-" is no Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating followed in carbohydrate chemistry.
The aldehyde or ketone group of a straight-chain monosaccharide will react reversibly with a hydroxyl group on a different carbon atom to form a hemiacetal or hemiketalforming a heterocyclic ring with an oxygen bridge between two carbon atoms. Rings with five and six atoms are called furanose and pyranose forms, respectively, and exist in equilibrium with the straight-chain form.
During the conversion from straight-chain form to the cyclic form, the carbon atom containing the carbonyl oxygen, called the anomeric carbonbecomes a stereogenic center with two possible configurations: The oxygen atom may take a position either above or below the plane of the ring.
The resulting possible pair of stereoisomers is called anomers. Monosaccharides are the major source of fuel for metabolismbeing used both as an energy source Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating being the most important in nature and in biosynthesis.
When monosaccharides are not immediately needed by many cells they are often converted to more space-efficient forms, often polysaccharides. In many animals, Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating humans, this storage Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating is glycogenespecially in liver and muscle cells. In plants, starch is used for the same purpose.
The most abundant carbohydrate, Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating a structural component of the cell wall of plants and many forms of algae. Ribose is a component of RNA. Deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Lyxose is a component of lyxoflavin found in the human heart. Galactosea component of milk sugar lactoseis found in galactolipids in plant cell membranes
Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating in glycoproteins in many tissues.
Mannose occurs in human metabolism, especially in the glycosylation of certain proteins. Fructoseor fruit sugar, is found in many plants and in humans, it is metabolized in the liver, absorbed directly into the intestines during digestionand found in semen. Trehalosea major sugar of insects, is rapidly hydrolyzed into two glucose molecules to support continuous flight.
Two joined monosaccharides are called a disaccharide and these are the simplest polysaccharides. Examples include sucrose and lactose. They are composed of two monosaccharide units bound together by a covalent bond known as a glycosidic linkage formed via a dehydration reactionresulting in the loss of a hydrogen Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating from one monosaccharide and a hydroxyl group from the other.
The formula of unmodified disaccharides is C 12 H 22 O Although there are numerous kinds of disaccharides, a handful of disaccharides are particularly notable. Sucrosepictured to the right, is the most abundant disaccharide, and the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in plants. It is composed of one D-glucose molecule and one D-fructose molecule. Lactosea disaccharide composed of one D-galactose molecule and one D-glucose molecule, occurs naturally in mammalian milk.
Disaccharides can be classified into two types: If the functional group is present in bonding with another sugar unit, it is called a reducing disaccharide or biose. Carbohydrate consumed in food yields 3. Lower amounts of carbohydrate are usually associated with unrefined foods, including beans, tubers, rice, and unrefined fruit. Organisms typically cannot metabolize all types of carbohydrate to yield energy. Glucose is a nearly universal and accessible source of Many organisms also have the ability to metabolize other monosaccharides and disaccharides but glucose is often metabolized first.
In Escherichia colifor example, the lac operon will express enzymes for the digestion of lactose when it is present, but if both lactose and glucose are present the lac operon is repressed, resulting in the glucose being used first see: Polysaccharides are also common sources of energy.
Many organisms can easily break down starches into glucose; most organisms, however, cannot metabolize cellulose or other polysaccharides like chitin and arabinoxylans. These carbohydrate types can be metabolized by some bacteria and protists.
Ruminants and termitesfor example, use microorganisms to process cellulose. Even though these complex carbohydrates are not very digestible, they represent an important dietary element for humans, called dietary fiber. Fiber enhances digestion, among other benefits. Nutritionists often refer to carbohydrates as either simple or complex. However, the exact distinction between these groups can be ambiguous.
The term complex carbohydrate was first used in the U. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs publication Dietary Goals for the United States where it was intended to distinguish sugars from
Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating carbohydrates which were perceived to be nutritionally superior. This confusion persists as today some nutritionists use the term complex carbohydrate to refer to any sort of digestible saccharide present in a whole food, where fiber, vitamins and minerals are also found as opposed to processed carbohydrates, which provide energy but few other nutrients.
The standard usage, however, is to classify carbohydrates chemically: In any case, the simple vs. The speed of digestion is determined by Hidratos de carbono definicion yahoo dating variety of factors including which other nutrients are consumed with the carbohydrate, how the food is prepared, individual differences in metabolism, and the chemistry of the carbohydrate.
The USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans call for moderate- to high-carbohydrate consumption from a balanced diet that includes six one-ounce servings of grain foods each day, at least half from whole grain sources and the rest from enriched.
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This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose , a sugar component of DNA ,  has the empirical formula C 5 H 10 O 4. The term is most common in biochemistry , where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars , starch , and cellulose.
The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest lower molecular weight carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars.
Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy e. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes e. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system , fertilization , preventing pathogenesis , blood clotting , and development.
Starch and sugars are the most important carbohydrates in human diet.
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