Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets.
Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms.
Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt.
Harassment is associated with increased risk of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic disorder, as well as Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge self-esteem, self-confidence, and psychological Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge see Pryor and Fitzgerald ; Welsh ; Willness, Steel, and Lee for reviews.
Despite this Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge, questions remain regarding the association between
Anti-sexual harassment act of Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge pdf merge harassment and depressive symptoms across the early life course for men and women. This study uses longitudinal survey and in-depth data from the Youth Development Study YDS to investigate the association between sexual harassment and depressive affect during the early occupational career.
We offer four contributions. First, our study follows young people prospectively from their earliest work experiences to their adult jobs. This allows us to assess the long- and short-term implications of harassment experiences over the entire occupational career.
Second, our longitudinal design allows us to account for potential confounders identified in the literature,
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge as depressive symptoms prior to harassment.
This analytic strategy increases confidence that the harassment-depressive symptoms relationship is not spurious. It also allows us to examine whether harassment affects feelings of depression only among subgroups of individuals who may be especially vulnerable to such workplace behavior due to their prior mental health or harassment history Schneider, Swan, and Fitzgerald Third, we Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge whether sexual harassment affects depressive symptoms for both men and women.
Prior research on the psychological consequences of sexual harassment is based primarily on women, but men are also at risk for workplace harassment Waldo, Berdahl, and Fitzgerald Although men are less likely than women to label harassing behaviors as sexual harassment Uggen and Blackstone Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge, men accounted for 16 percent of all sexual harassment charges filed with the U.
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge Employment Commission in U. Based on extant research, it is unclear whether sexual harassment is likely to lead both men and women targets to feel depressed. Finally, we describe how these processes unfolded for some of our survey respondents based on interviews with 33 YDS participants.
Interviewees described the context of their experiences and their subjective reactions to sexual harassment. From the interview data, we are able to hear directly from respondents in their own words. Interviewees report elements of risk, coping, and resilience that are not directly measured in the survey. Our qualitative data are not representative of all survey respondents; instead, we interviewed a purposive sample of those who reported harassment in the survey to learn more about the context and consequences of their experiences.
We thus draw from both survey and interview data to better understand the link between mental health and harassment. Sexual harassment includes behaviors ranging from offensive materials in the workplace to sexual comments and inappropriate touching Gruber ; Osman We consider sexual harassment to be a chronic stressor because it puts targeted workers under physical and mental stress in their day-to-day work activities.
We ask four research questions about the relationship between sexual harassment and mental health over the early adult life course as they pertain to stress theory Pearlin According to stress theory Pearlingroup differences in mental health and well-being result from disparities in exposure to stressors and access to personal and social resources that allow individuals to cope with stressful experiences.
Stress theory also predicts that some groups may more vulnerable to stress than others, particularly if these groups lack the power or resources to cope with stressors Kessler and McLeod ; Thoits Louise Fitzgerald and her colleagues Fitzgerald et al. The authors identify possible antecedents of sexual harassment, including individual e. They also theorize that sexual harassment is a stressor that can lead to work withdrawal, career instability, job dissatisfaction, and poor mental and physical health.
However, ecause sexual harassment experiences vary by occupation Richman et al. Harassment studies based on cross-sectional samples of adult workers may also miss previously targeted respondents who Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge withdrawn from the labor market Coles ; Gutek and Koss research is also limited because it does not include lagged measures of mental health. The inclusion of lagged standardized measures of depressive symptoms in the present study increases confidence that the relationship between harassment and mental health is not biased by stable differences across persons.
Thus, our first research question simply asks, net of confounders, is the frequency and severity of sexual harassment in adulthood associated with increased depressive symptoms? An important unanswered question is whether harassment has long-term consequences for mental and well-being.
Although most harassment research has focused on adult workers, workplace sexual harassment is common in adolescence and young adulthood Fineran in part because younger workers have little power in
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge workplace and are perceived as easier targets Blackstone, Uggen, and McLaughlin ; Uggen and Blackstone As such, harassment in early life may have long term implications for adult depressive symptoms.
Prior work merging stress theory with the life course perspective provides more insight into this relationship and identifies pathways by which early life stressors may affect later-life mental health e. We focus on three of these pathways: One way that early life stressors can affect later Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge health is through stress proliferation, which occurs when stressful experiences lead to additional stressors Pearlin et al.
Early life stressors can have long-term effects on mental health because stressful experiences at one point increase the risk of stressful experiences at a later point. There is evidence that sexual harassment proliferates across the life course. Early targets are more likely than non-targets to be targeted again later in life Uggen and Blackstone
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge such, early career sexual harassment may affect later-life depressive symptoms through subsequent experiences of sexual harassment.
Another pathway by which early sexual harassment could influence later life depressive symptoms is through the stability of depressive symptoms. If sexual harassment heightens depressed mood among young workers, and if depressive symptoms are stable over time, then early targeting could contribute to poor long-term mental health, irrespective of harassment
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge adulthood.
Poor mental health also increases the likelihood of exposure to social stressors Turner and Turner Thus, early harassment could increase depressive symptoms, which could in turn increase the risk of later harassment and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Finally, early life sexual harassment may affect later life depressive symptoms through diminished resources.
Sexual harassment is associated with work withdrawal, job turnover, and career instability Coles ; Gutek and Kossall of which can threaten adult socioeconomic status and increase depressive symptoms. Based on this extant research and theory, we Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge whether early career sexual harassment is associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood.
If so, is the association explained by a sexual harassment later in the career; b prior depressive symptoms; or, c adult socioeconomic status and employment status? Some groups may be more vulnerable to the psychological impact of stressful experiences, especially if the stressors are chronic or if they have insufficient to buffer stressful life events and circumstances Kessler and McLeod ; Thoits Drawing from the stress literature, several individual characteristics are expected to moderate the psychological impact of sexual harassment, including prior sexual harassment, prior mental health, and gender.
Similarly, stress theory and the life course perspective assume that stressful experiences create a generalized vulnerability to stress, so that stressors have stronger effects on mental health for those who experienced earlier
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge stressors George Negative experiences work may be especially deleterious to
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge health if they occur repeatedly through the career, as the accumulation of workplace stressors may exert larger effects than a single isolated incident Avison Turner Yet past research does not consider prior harassment as a moderator of subsequent harassment effects on depressive symptoms.
Another oft-cited but rarely tested indicator of target vulnerability is prior mental health.
We ask whether past harassment moderates the proximal association between harassment and depressive affect and whether the detrimental effects of harassment are exacerbated for those with a history of frequent depressive symptoms.
Gender is another potential indicator of target vulnerability. Although harassment is more prevalent among women, harassment rates of men are non-trivial Uggen and Blackstoneas nearly 20 percent of men in some studies report that they experienced sexual harassment Pryor and Fitzgerald Similarly, the percentage of all E.
Prior research on this topic focuses almost exclusively on the harassment and mental health of women. But there are several reasons to expect gender differences in the effect of sexual harassment on mental health. Research on gender stratification shows that women are less likely than men to hold positions of power in the workplace Smith Relative to men, women also receive fewer rewards for their work Kilbourne, England, Farkas, Beron, and Weir ; Reskin
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge are more likely to experience role strain when employed Aneshensel and Pearlin We thus consider whether the effect of harassment on depressive affect is greater for women than men.
This study also draws from qualitative interviews with targets of harassment to better understand their perceptions and how they cope with such potentially distressing events.
Lazarus ; Thoits Of particular importance to the coping process is how individuals appraise their stressful experiences Lazaruswhich is illuminated in the qualitative interviews.
Our qualitative data Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge allow us to use inductive reasoning to generate hypotheses about the nature of the relationship between sexual harassment and mental health. This multi-method approach offers a rare opportunity to understand not Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge what people experience when it comes to sexual harassment but also how some people experience it.
Our final research question is: That is, how do targets respond to and
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge with their harassment experiences? Data are drawn from the Youth Development Study
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge prospective longitudinal study of 1, teenagers located in a greater metropolitan area of approximately 3 million residents.
The YDS began in with a randomly-chosen Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge sample of ninth graders enrolled in the St. Paul Public School District in Minnesota. The YDS panel was surveyed annually from the ninth to twelfth grades in high school. Yearly questionnaires, administered in school, included a large battery of items tapping early experiences in work, plans for the future, school performance, and adjustment.
From torespondents completed up to eleven follow-up surveys indicating their mental health, achievement, job-related conditions, and harassment. Though panel retention through the study is uncorrelated with numerous measures of socioeconomic background, achievement, and adjustment, women were more likely to be retained than men, and whites were more likely to be retained than non-whites; youth who did not have an employed parent at the outset of the study also had greater attrition see Staff and Mortimer We used the ICE multiple imputation procedure in the Stata statistical package to regain respondents who were missing information on the predictor variables Royston We imputed values into five
Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge using all of the outcome and predictor variables in the imputation procedure.
The ICE procedure uses tailored regression equations to calculate imputed values for continuous and categorical variables Royston Following von Hippelwe then deleted 3 cases that were originally missing data on the outcome variable.
After imputation, our analysis sample included respondents. In addition to the survey data, we interviewed 33 of the YDS respondents. Of those invited to participate, 28 men and 30 women expressed interest by returning a postcard and providing a telephone number where they could be reached.
We attempted to schedule Anti-sexual harassment act of 1995 pdf merge with all those who expressed interest, but we were not able to reach some respondents. In all, we completed interviews with 14 men and 19 women. We found little difference between the harassing behaviors and depressive mood of interview participants and those who were invited but did not participate. Of course, we have no way of knowing for certain that the qualitative findings would remain with a larger sample.
We therefore caution against interpreting our qualitative findings as representative of the entire population of eligible interview participants. Our analyses include survey measures of workplace sexual harassment, depressive affect, educational attainment, job characteristics, and background characteristics.
Table 1 provides descriptive statistics for all variables in the observed and imputed datasets.
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