Minority stress describes chronically high levels of stress faced by members of stigmatized minority groups. It is an important concept for psychologists and public health officials who seek to understand and reduce minority health disparities.
Over the past three decades, social scientists have found that minority individuals suffer from mental and physical health disparities compared to their peers in majority groups. This research has Sexual minority stress scale primarily on racial and sexual minorities.
For example, African Americans have been found to suffer elevated rates of hypertension compared to Whites. How can we reduce minority health disparities? In order to answer this question, it was first
Sexual minority stress scale to explore the underlying causes of the disparities. One causal explanation for minority health disparities is the social selection
Sexual minority stress scale, which holds that there is something inherent to being in a minority group e.
If minority individuals were genetically predisposed to poor health outcomes, the vast majority of them should face health disparities. However, large-scale empirical studies have shown that most of LGB individuals do not suffer psychopathology and that many African Americans do not have heart disease. A second hypothesis regarding the causes of minority health disparities suggests that minority group members Sexual minority stress scale difficult social situations that lead to poor health.
Minority stress theory extends the social causation by suggesting that social situations do not lead directly to poor health for minority individuals, but that difficult
Sexual minority stress scale situations cause stress for minority individuals, which accrues over time, resulting in long-term health deficits.
Together, distal and proximal stressors accrue over time, leading to chronically high levels of stress that cause poor health outcomes.
Thus, minority stress Sexual minority stress scale has three primary tenets:. These three tenets of the
Sexual minority stress scale stress theory have been tested in over empirical studies, most of which examined racial and sexual minority populations. The first tenet of minority stress theory holds that being in a minority group is associated with increased exposure to distal
Sexual minority stress scale, such as prejudice and discrimination.
Indeed, despite significant improvement over the Sexual minority stress scale several decades, numerous studies have confirmed that minority individuals continue to face high rates of distal stressors. Rates of exposure to distal stressors are much higher among racial Sexual minority stress scale sexual minorities than among majority individuals. For example, LGB adults are twice as likely to recall experiencing prejudice throughout their lives compared to heterosexuals, and LGBT youth report significantly higher rates of prejudice and discrimination compared to their heterosexual peers.
Proximal stressors are internal processes
Sexual minority stress scale are presumed Sexual minority stress scale occur following exposure to distal stressors. Thus, it is necessary to review proximal stress processes separately for sexual minority and African American populations.
A growing body of research Sexual minority stress scale that exposure to distal stressors leads to proximal stressors in sexual minority populations. While sexual minority stress and gender minority stress both use Meyer's Minority Stress Model as framework, and share some characteristics with gender minority stress, some researchers have suggested that sexual minority stress is distinct from the minority stress experienced by transgender, gender non-conforming, and non-binary-gender individuals .
For example, LGB youth and adults who have experienced prejudice about their sexual orientation sometimes choose to conceal sexual identity from others. It refers to the internalization of negative social views about homosexuality, which leads to self-hatred and poor self-regard. Rejection sensitivity refers to chronic, anxious expectations of rejection based on one's stigmatized status.
Among sexual minority individuals, rejection sensitivity emerges from experiences
Among African Americans, proximal stressors were described by early social psychological theorists. For example, Erving Goffman observed that racial minorities approach social interactions with a high
Sexual minority stress scale of anxiety, because they have been discriminated against in the past.
Proximal stressors also have been demonstrated among African Americans in terms of stereotype threat. Sexual minority stress scale is also possible that more general psychological processes act as proximal stressors for minority individuals. In one longitudinal studyresearchers found that gay men who experienced distal stressors related to their sexual orientation had an increased tendency to ruminate, which was associated with increased depressive and anxious symptoms compared to gay men did not experience distal stressors.
The bulk of minority stress research has examined the third tenet of the theory — namely, Sexual minority stress scale distal and proximal stressors are associated with adverse health outcomes for minority individuals. These outcomes include both mental and physical health disparities, which differ across minority groups. Again, Sexual minority stress scale have yet to systematically determine whether minority stress is associated with different health outcomes among different minority groups.
Thus, it is necessary to review associations between minority stress and health separately for LGB, African American, and immigrant groups, as social scientists do not know whether stress causes similar outcomes across
The immigrant paradox outlines health outcomes among immigrant populations. For example, population-based studies have shown that LGBT people are at risk for increased rates of substance abuse, suicide attempts, depression, and anxiety across the lifespan. Several studies have linked these negative health outcomes to distal stressors.
For example, in a national survey, LGBT adults displayed higher rates psychiatric morbidity and also reported
Sexual minority stress scale higher rates of prejudice and discrimination compared to their heterosexual peers; prejudice and discrimination fully explained the link between sexual orientation and psychiatric symptoms for LGBT respondents.
Proximal stressors have also been linked to negative health outcomes for sexual minorities. For example, internalized homophobia has been linked to self-harm and eating disorders as well as sexual risk-taking behavior. Recent evidence suggests similar links between proximal stressors and physical health disparities in LGB communities, including cardiovascular disease, asthma, diabetes, and some cancers. African Americans have been shown to suffer notable health disparities compared to their White peers.
For example, they suffer higher rates of morbidity due to strokeperinatal disease, and diabetes mellitus compared to Whites. Distal stressors have been linked to these health disparities among African Sexual minority stress scale. For example, one study showed that perceived prejudice was associated with irregular blood pressure throughout the day, which has been linked to long-term cardiovascular disease.
Poverty level affects mental health status. African Americans living below the poverty level, as compared to those over twice the poverty level, are 3 times more likely to report psychological distress. Other studies have linked proximal stressors and health outcomes for African Americans. For example, researchers have found that African Americans have a sense of inferiority and low self-worth due to experiences with prejudice, which are associated with emotional distress.
Non-Hispanic Whites are more than twice as likely to receive antidepressant prescription treatments as are Non-Hispanic Blacks. The death rate from for African American men was almost four times that for African American women, in A report from the U. Despite multiple studies indicating
Sexual minority stress scale minority individuals face a high degree of stress related to their minority identity, and that minority stress is with poor health outcomes, there are several
Sexual minority stress scale limitations and ongoing debates on this topic.
First, the minority stress concept has been criticized as focusing too narrowly on the negative experiences of minority individuals and ignoring the unique coping strategies and social support structures available to them.
Sexual minority stress scale the future, it will be important for researchers to consider both positive and negative aspects of minority group membership, examining whether Sexual minority stress scale why one of those aspects outweighs the other in determining minority health outcomes.
Also, few studies have been able to test minority stress theory in full. Most studies have examined one of the three links described above, demonstrating that minority individuals face heightened rates of prejudice, that minority individuals face health disparities, or that prejudice is Sexual minority stress scale to health disparities.
Together, findings from these three areas corroborate minority stress theory, but a stronger test would examine all three parts in the same study. While there have been a few such studies,  further replication is necessary to support the presumed pathways underlying minority stress.
Most studies of minority stress are correlational. That is, most of the existing research cannot Sexual minority stress scale that prejudice causes stress, which poor health outcomes among minority individuals, because correlation does not imply causation. One way to remedy this limitation is to employ experimental and longitudinal research designs to test the impact of social stressors on health.
Indeed, several recent studies have begun to use these more stringent tests of minority stress. Finally, it is unclear whether different minority groups face different types of minority stress and different health outcomes following prejudice. Minority stress theory was originally developed to explain associations between social situations, stress, and health for LGB individuals.
Thus, it is possible that minority stress applies broadly to members of diverse minority groups. However, studies have yet to directly compare experiences, stress responses, and health Sexual minority stress scale among individuals from diverse minority groups. Minority stress research has demonstrated that Sexual minority stress scale specific processes are associated with Sexual minority stress scale health disparities.
For example, existing studies highlight the differences between and proximal stressors, drawing attention both to socio-cultural factors e. By separating the socio-cultural and individual aspects of minority stress, Sexual minority stress scale theory Sexual minority stress scale that practical interventions must occur at both the individual and social levels.
On the societal level, minority stress research shows that prejudice and discrimination are common occurrences for minority individuals, and that they have damaging effects for individual well-being. This information has been used by law Sexual minority stress scale, policymakers, and social organizations to target and minimize the occurrence of distal stressors and, thus, to improve minority health on a large
Sexual minority stress scale. If successful, these programs may reduce the rate of distal stressors, significantly improving the mental and
Sexual minority stress scale health of minority individuals.
On the individual level, minority stress research has uncovered differences in how minorities react to prejudice. For example, studies have shown that some individuals ruminate on experiences with prejudice, which is associated with anxiety and depression. From these findings, clinicians have developed some interventions to Sexual minority stress scale internalized stigma and improve well-being for minority individuals.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. December Learn and when to remove this template message. Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in Sexual minority stress scale, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence.
Psychological Bulletin, Racism as a stressor for African Americans: American Psychologist, 54, Perceived discrimination and health: The role of adversity and stress in psychopathology: Some evidence and its implications for theory and research. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, The health of sexual minorities: Public health perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations.
The convergent, discriminant, and concurrent criterion validity of Sexual minority stress scale perceived racism scale: A multidimensional assessment of White racism among African Americans. Lifetime prevalence of suicide symptoms and affective disorders among men reporting same-sex sexual partners: American Journal of Public Health, 90, Alcohol and tobacco use patterns among heterosexually and homosexually experienced California women.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 77,
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- Minority stress among homosexual and bisexual individuals – from theoretical concepts to research tools: The Sexual Minority Stress Scale. Grzegorz Iniewicz. The experience of sexual orientation stigma (e.g., homophobic discrimination and physical aggression) generates minority stress, a chronic form of psychosocial.
- The Gender Minority Stress and Resilience (GMSR) measure was developed The final GMSR includes scales assessing 9 constructs: gender-related. Ilan H. Meyer, Ph.D. The Williams Institute. UCLA School of Law. Minority Stress and the Health of Sexual Minorities. ❖. Psychology Diversity Science Initiative.
- The final LGBT Minority Stress Measure is a item self-report scale, with seven gender non-conforming, supported the psychometric properties of the scale. The total Minority stress scale, as well as each of its 3 factor components (sexual minority stress, general minority stress, and acculturative minority stress).
- Minority stress describes chronically high levels of stress faced by members of stigmatized However, large-scale empirical studies have shown that most of LGB . While sexual minority stress and gender minority stress both use Meyer's .
- Minority stress - Wikipedia
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