It is administered by the Cabo de Hornos municipality in the South American mainland. It has an area of 1, Its boundaries are defined by Decreeissued on November 6,and published on June 21,the Ministry of Foreign Affairs established: Chilean territorial claims on Antarctica are mainly based on
Mapa antartida bases of dating, legal and geographical considerations.
The exercise of Chilean sovereignty over the Chilean Antarctic Territory is put into effect in all that are not limited by the signing of the Antarctic Treaty of This treaty established that Antarctic activities are to be devoted exclusively to peaceful purposes of the signatories and acceding countries, thereby freezing territorial disputes and preventing the construction of new claims Mapa antartida bases of dating the expansion of existing ones.
Chile currently has 13 active Antarctic bases: For many years, cartographers and European explorers speculated about the existence of the Terra Australis Incognitaa vast territory located in the south of the Strait of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego that reached the South Pole. The treaty, backed by the papal bull Ea quae pro bono pacis inwas not recognized by European non-Catholic states nor even by some Catholic ones, like France.
For BritainNetherlandsRussia and other countries, the Antarctic areas were considered res nulliusno man's land subject to the occupation of any nation. There are numerous historical documents proving this, among which include a Royal Decree of Because it Mapa antartida bases of dating personally consulted, we will grant, to the Captain Jeronimo de Alderete the land across the Magellan Strait.
Later, inthe Royal Decree of Brussels prompted the Chilean colonial government to take ownership in our name from the lands and provinces that
Mapa antartida bases of dating in the demarcation of the Spanish crown in referring to the land across the Straitbecause at that time it was thought that Tierra del Fuego was an integral part of the Terra Australis.
One of the most important works of Spanish literature, the epic poem La Araucana by Alonso de Ercillais also considered by Chile as favorable to their argument, as you can read in the seventh stanza of his Canto I:. New sea coast, of the south called will from east to west, of wide one hundred miles, so wider taken under the Antarctic Pole height Twenty-seven of prolonged degrees until the Sea Ocean and Chilean mix their waters within narrow.
There are also stories and maps, both Chilean and European, indicating the membership of the Terra Australis Antarctica as part of the Captaincy General of Chile.
The Spanish Mapa antartida bases of dating Gabriel de Castilla sailed from Valparaiso in March in command of three ships in an expedition entrusted by his brother cousin viceroy of PeruLuis de Velasco y Castillato repress the incursions of Dutch privateers in the Southern Seas, reaching 64 degrees south latitude. No Mapa antartida bases of dating confirming the reached latitude and sighted land have been found in the Spanish archives; however, story of the Dutch sailor Laurenz Mapa antartida bases of dating date unknown, but probably afterdocuments the latitude and time.
In march of he reached 64 degrees and they had a lot of snow there. In the following April they returned back to the coast of Chile.
Other historians attribute the first sighting of Antarctic Mapa antartida bases of dating to the Dutch marine Dirk Gerritszwho would have found the islands now known as South Shetland. According to his account, his ship was diverted Mapa antartida bases of dating course by a storm after transposing the Strait of Magellanin the journey of a Dutch expedition to the East Indies in There are doubts about the of Gerritsz.
At this time, there was already knowledge of the existence of a white continent in south of the Drake Passageseparated from the Tierra del Fuego. After the independence of the colonies in the Americas, the new republics recognized the principle of uti possidetis -- that is, new states would have as Mapa antartida bases of dating those inherited from the Spanish colonies from which they originated.
Therefore, the Republic of Chile consisted of all lands formerly belonging to the Captaincy General of Mapa antartida bases of dating and then assumed that these titles included rights over Antarctica.
Brown's report indicated the presence of nearby ground. The fact that these Argentine sealers were directed to the islands with fixed course is usually regarded as proof that it was previously known. Between andthe Russian Mapa antartida bases of dating Vostok and Mirny under the command of the German Bellingshausen at the service of Russiasailed the Antarctic seas. In the same year it would have been Mapa antartida bases of dating for the first time with certainty the Peninsula by the American Nathaniel Palmer.
InJohn Davis would have landed on the Antarctic continent, although sealers remains found indicate that Americans have previously reached. From those years, the hunting of whales and sea Lions began to be increased in the zone. A simple glance at the map of South America is sufficient to prove that Chile, as is described, holds the keys of that vast portion of the South Atlantic.
Ina Chilean expedition founded the Fort Bulnestaking possession of the Strait of Magellanjust days
Mapa antartida bases of dating British and French ships arrived
Mapa antartida bases of dating same purpose.
Inthe treaty of friendship between Chile and Argentina that recognized boundaries was enacted uti possidetis juristhat is, those defined by the Spanish Empire until The growth Mapa antartida bases of dating the Chilean colony in Magallanes, and then in the city of Punta Arenasallowed the founding of companies for hunting and exploitation of whales in Antarctic
Mapa antartida bases of dating, which requested authorization from the government of Chile.
In the early years of the 20th century, the interest of studying the Antarctic territories increased. Chile also gave mining permits, as conferred on December 31,Decree No. That place was visited by Jean-Baptiste Charcot in December to replenish coal and continued to be inhabited in the summer season until Fromthey began to be promulgated several decrees, even from the National Congress of Chilefor mining permits in the Antarctic area.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Chile mentioned on September 18Chilean national day, of that year, the Mapa antartida bases of dating Antarctic rights in a memory and said that the delimitation of the territory would be subject to preliminary investigations. Argentina formally protested the June Mapa antartida bases of dating these actions in Chile Mapa antartida bases of dating a negotiation process began for the mutual recognition of Antarctic territories.
Mapa antartida bases of dating to be set to define two different areas, but this treaty was never signed. With two ships, Endurance and Aurorahe went to Antarctica, but the Mapa antartida bases of dating worsened dramatically until an iceberg completely destroyed the first ship.
Shackleton sailed to Argentine ports, the Falklands and South Georgia Islands without finding anyone who dared to be members of the expedition trapped Mapa antartida bases of dating an Antarctic island. On September 4,they were received at the port of Punta Arenas as heroes. The commission set the bounds according to the Theory of polar areas Mapa antartida bases of dating into account geographical, historical, Mapa antartida bases of dating and precedents, which were formalized by Decree No.
In turn, the United Kingdom objected to the February 25, In the late s, Argentina and Chile recognized each other " On September 2,Decree No.
Finally, February 28,Decree Law No. This decree established a territory which is superimposed on part of the territory claimed by Chile. Chile began to perform acts of sovereignty in the Antarctic continent with installation, Sovereignty Base current Arturo Prat in On 4 MarchChile and Argentina they signed an agreement on mutual protection and legal defense of its Antarctic territorial rights, recognizing each other:.
Inthe representative of India in United Nations presented a project for the internationalization of Antarctica, movement which adhered several countries without a history
Mapa antartida bases of dating of sovereignty over the Antarctic territory.
That if they had started efforts to avoid internationalization, and Chilean ambassador in New DelhiMiguel Serranopersuaded the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru down the proposal. On May 4,the United Kingdom filed two lawsuits against Argentina and Chile, respectively, before the International Court of Mapa antartida bases of dating for it to declare the invalidity of claims of sovereignty of the two countries on Antarctic and sub-Antarctic areas.
On July 15,the Chilean government rejected the jurisdiction of the Court in that case and on August Mapa antartida bases of dating so did the Argentine government, so the 16 March claims were filed.
On 1 DecemberChile signed the Mapa antartida bases of dating Treatywhich stated that:. The Chilean claim is mainly constituted by a sector of the Lesser Antarctica or West Antarcticawhich includes the Antarctic Peninsula, known in Chile as Land of O'Higginsit is crossed longitudinally by the mountains of the Antartandes.
This mountain range is the continuation of the Andes. The Antartandes in turn, clearly differentiate three geographic areas in the Mapa antartida bases of dating of O'Higgins: Antartandes reach the meters of altitude in the Mount Hope. Within the land claimed by Chile, in southwest of the territory are the highest summits of the Antarctic continent, including the point of highest elevation, which are part of the Sentinel Range:.
There is a hypothesis that it could have life, this would have developed in conditions of extreme isolation and the lake is encapsulated. The precipitations in the territory are relatively rare and are
Mapa antartida bases of dating towards the South Pole, where reigns the "polar desert". The rest of the territory is under the regime of Polar climate. This town, located next to the Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalvaon King George Islandwas opened on April 9,and has an airport, a bank, a school and child care, a hospital, a supermarket, mobile telephony and So far, a total Mapa antartida bases of dating three people have been born in the Chilean Bases.
At present, the development of tourism has increased explosively through airplanes and cruise ships that depart from Punta Arenas or UshuaiaMost of the flights that arrives
Mapa antartida bases of dating King George Island are by Dap Group. Due to the geographical characteristics of the Antarctic Peninsula, it has the best conditions for the development of human life. That is why in the Chilean Antarctic Territory is the largest number of international bases.
There are four Chilean permanent bases operating through the year, while there are five that remain open only Mapa antartida bases of dating the summer December - March Seasonal with four shelters. Belonging to Chile, this enclave is the nucleus of more important logistical support to the remaining countries with scientific bases on King George Island. The maximum is four Chilean researchers to carry out scientific work at the base.
To realize this possibility, Chilean researchers must submit a letter from a leading Czech researcher, who collaborate in its proposal List of Chilean Antarctic Bases:. Permanent; Are open all the year. Seasonal; Are open in the Austral Summer. This enclave is a center of logistical support for the other eight countries with scientific bases on King George Island. Opened Mapa antartida bases of dating 6,it is the oldest Chilean Antarctic base.
Until February,it had been a permanent base. Afterwards, it had served as a summer base of ionospheric and meteorologic research. It is located on Puerto Covadonga and it is the official communal capital. Panoramic view of Villa Las Estrellas in winter. Correos de Chile office in Antarctica. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Retrieved March 21, Retrieved 4 June Cristian Donoso and Scaletta completes historic journey in Antarctica.
Roald Amundsen Richard E.