BarcelonaGironaLleidaand Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelonathe second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. The official languages are CatalanSpanishand the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating invasions.
The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating were later called Catalonia.
InCatalonia and the Kingdom of Aragon were united
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating marriage under the Crown of Aragonand the Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts parliamentand constitutionsbecoming
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean.
In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between andthe king of Aragon and the queen of Castile Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War —Catalonia revolted — against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection.
Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating Spanish Crown ceded the
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillonto France.
During the War of the Spanish Succession —the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain ; following Catalan defeat on 11 SeptemberPhilip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decreessuppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon.
This Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies In the
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars.
In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. Inthe four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealthand with return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic —the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil
Caixa catalonia cuenta online datingthe Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again.
After a first period of autarkyfrom the late s through to the s Catalonia saw rapid economic growthdrawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination.
Since the Spanish to democracy — has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain.
In the s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 Octoberthe Catalan Parliament declared independence Spain following a disputed referendum.
The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including the President Carles Puigdemont, fled to European countries.
The name Catalonia— Catalunya
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating Catalan, spelled Cathaloniaor Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin —began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans Cathalanenses in the late 11th century and was probably used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives.
The first known human settlements in what is now Catalonia were at the beginning of the Middle Paleolithic. The oldest known trace of human occupation is a mandible found in Banyolesdescribed by some sources as pre- Neanderthal someyears old; other sources suggest it to be only about one third that old.
The Neolithic era began in Catalonia around BC, although the population was slower to develop fixed settlements than in other places, thanks to the abundance of woods, which allowed the continuation of a fundamentally hunter-gatherer culture. An example of such settlements would Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating La Draga, an "early Neolithic village which dates from the end of the 6th millennium BC.
The Chalcolithic developed in Catalonia between and BCE, with the beginning of the construction of copper objects. There are few remnants of this era, but there were some known settlements in the low Segre zone.
The Bronze Age coincided with the arrival of the Indo-Europeans through the Urnfield Culturewhose Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating waves of began around BC, and they were responsible for the creation of the first proto-urban settlements.
In pre-Roman times, the area that is now called Catalonia in the north-east of Iberian Peninsula — like the rest of the Mediterranean side of the peninsula — was populated by the Iberians.
The Iberians of this area — the IlergetesIndigetes and Lacetani Cerretains — also maintained relations with the peoples of the Mediterranean. The Carthaginians briefly ruled the territory in the course of the Second Punic War and traded with the surrounding Iberian population. After the Carthaginian defeat by the Roman Republicthe north-east of Iberia became the first to come under Roman rule and became part of Hispaniathe westernmost part of the Roman Empire.
Tarraco modern Tarragona was one of the most important Roman cities in Hispania and the capital of the province of Tarraconensis. As for the rest of Hispania, Latin law was to all cities under the reign of Vespasian ADwhile Roman citizenship was granted to all free men of the empire by the Edict of Caracalla in AD Tarraco, the capital, was already a colony of Roman law since 45 BC.
It was a rich agricultural province olive oil, vine, wheatand the first centuries of the Empire saw the construction of roads the most important being the Via Augustaparallel to Mediterranean coastline and infrastructure like aqueducts.
Conversion to Christianityattested in the 3rd century, was completed in urban areas in the 4th century. Although Hispania remained under Roman rule and did not fall under the rule of VandalsSwabians and Alans in the 5th century, main cities suffered frequent Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating and some deurbanization.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empirethe area was conquered the Visigoths and was ruled as part of the Visigothic Kingdom for almost two and a half centuries. Init came under Muslim control and became part of Al-Andalusa province of the Umayyad Caliphate. From the conquest of Roussillon into the conquest of Barcelona inthe Frankish empire took control of the area between Septimania and the Llobregat river from the Muslims and created heavily militarised, self-governing counties.
These counties formed part of the Gothic and Hispanic marches, a buffer zone in the south of the Frankish empire in the former province of Septimania and in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, to act as a defensive barrier for the Frankish empire against further Muslim invasions from Al-Andalus. These counties came under the rule of the counts of Barcelonawho were Frankish vassals nominated by the emperor the Franks, to whom they were feudatories — The earliest known use of the name " Catalonia " for these counties dates Caixa catalonia cuenta
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating dating During the 9th century, the Count Wifred the Hairy made its title hereditary and founded the dynasty of the House of Barcelonawhich ruled part of today's Catalonia until At the start of eleventh century the Catalan Counties suffer an important process of feudalisation, partially controlled by the Peace and Truce Assemblies and by power and negotiation skills of the Counts of Barcelona like Ramon Berenguer I.
The king of France formally relinquished his nominal feudal lordship over all the Catalan counties, except the County of Foixdespite the opposition of the king of Aragon and count of Barcelona.
This treaty transformed the principality's de facto union with Aragon into a de jure one and was the origin of the definitive separation between the geographical areas of Catalonia and Languedoc. As a coastal territory, Catalonia became the base of the Aragonese Crown's maritime forces, which spread power of the Aragonese Crown in the Mediterranean, and made Barcelona into a powerful and wealthy city.
In the period of —, new territories, the Kingdom of Valenciathe Kingdom of MajorcaSardiniathe Kingdom of SicilyCorsicaand briefly the Duchies of Athens and Neopatraswere incorporated into the dynastic domains of the House of Aragon. At the same time, the Principality of Catalonia developed a complex institutional and political system based in the concept of a pact between the estates of the realm and the king.
Laws had to be Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating in the General Court of Cataloniaone Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating the first parliamentary bodies of Europe that banned the royal power to create legislation unilaterally since In order to collect general taxes, the Courts of established a permanent representative of deputies position, called the Deputation Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating the General and later usually known as Generalitatwhich gained political power over the next centuries.
The domains of the Aragonese Crown were severely affected by the Black Death pandemic and by later outbreaks of the plague. Between and Catalonia lost 37 percent of its population. Ferdinand II of Aragonthe grandson of Ferdinand I, and Queen Isabella I of Castile were married inlater taking the title the Catholic
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating ; subsequently, this event was seen by historiographers as the dawn of a unified Spain.
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating time, though united by marriage, the Crowns of Castile and Aragon maintained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, parliaments, and laws. Castile commissioned expeditions to the Americas and benefited from the riches acquired in the Spanish colonisation of the Americasbut, in time, also carried the main burden of military expenses of the united Spanish kingdoms. After Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating death, Ferdinand II personally ruled both kingdoms.
Over the next few centuries, the Principality of Catalonia was generally on the losing side of a series of wars that led steadily to more centralization of power in Spain. Despite this fact, between the 16th and 18th centuries, the participation of the political community in the local and the general Catalan government was increased, while the kings remained absent and its constitutional system continued to consolidate.
of Catalonia was reconquered by the Spanish monarchy but Catalan rights were recognised. Roussillon was lost to France by the Peace of the Pyrenees The most significant conflict concerning the governing monarchy was the War of the Spanish Successionwhich began when the childless Charles II of Spainthe last Spanish Habsburg, died without an heir in Philip felt
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating he had been betrayed by the Catalan Courts, as it had initially sworn its loyalty to him when he had presided over it in Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating retaliation for the betrayal, the first Bourbon king introduced the Nueva Planta decrees that incorporated the territories of the Crown of Aragon, including Catalonia, as provinces under Crown of Castile interminating their separate institutions, laws and rights, within a united kingdom of Spain.
During the second half of 18th century Catalonia started a successful process of proto-industrialization. At the beginning of the nineteenth century Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic Wars. In it was occupied by the French troops, the resistance against the Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating eventually developed into the Peninsular War.
Napoleon took direct Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating of Catalonia to establish order, creating the Government of Catalonia under the rule of Marshall Augereauand making Catalan briefly an official language again. The French troops evacuated Catalan territory at the end of Catalonia was divided, the coast and most industrialized areas support liberalism, while many inland areas were in the hands Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating Carlists. In the second third of the 19th century, it became an industrial center.
This process was boosted by, amongst other things, national protectionist laws although the policy of the Spanish government during those times changed many times between free trade and protectionism and the conditions of proto-industrialization of the prior two centuries of the Catalan urban areas and its countryside.
To this day it remains one of the most industrialised areas of Spain. In it was inaugurated in Barcelona the factory Bonaplata, the first of the country which worked with steam engine. During those years, Barcelona was the focus of important revolutionary uprisings, called "bullangues", causing a difficult relation between many sectors of Catalan society and the central government and, in Catalonia, a republican current began to develop; also, inevitably, many Catalans favored a more federal Spain.
After the fall of the First Spanish Republic and the restoration of the Bourbon dynastyCatalan nationalism grew in importance.
The Anarchists had been active throughout the early 20th century, founding the CNT trade union and achieving one of the first eight-hour workday in Europe in Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia gained and lost varying degrees of autonomy several times.
Inthe four Catalan provinces were authorized to create a Commonwealth Mancomunitatwithout any legislative power or specific autonomy which Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating out an ambitious program of modernization, but that was disbanded in by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. During the last steps of the Dictatorship, Barcelona celebrated the International Expositionwhile Spain started to suffer an economical crisis.
This period was Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating by political unrest, the effects of the economic crisis and its social repercussions.
The Statute was suspended indue to the Events of 6 October in Barcelona, as a response to the accession of right-wing Spanish nationalist party CEDA to the government of the Republic, considered close to fascism.
After the electoral victory of the Popular Front in Februarythe Government of Catalonia was pardoned and the self-government restored. The defeat of the military rebellion against the Republican government in Barcelona
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating Catalonia firmly in the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War.
During the war, there were two rival powers in Catalonia: The situation resolved itself progressively in favor of the Generalitat, but at the same time the Generalitat was partially losing its autonomous power within Republican Spain. In Franco's troops broke the Republican territory in two, isolating Catalonia from the rest of the Republic.
The defeat of the Republican army in the Battle of the Ebro led in and to the occupation of Catalonia by Franco's forces. His regime imposed linguistic, political and cultural restrictions across Spain.
In Catalonia, any kind of public activities associated with Catalan nationalismrepublicanismanarchismsocialismliberalismdemocracy or communismincluding the publication of books on those subjects or simply discussion of them Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating open
Caixa catalonia cuenta online dating, was banned. Franco's regime banned the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and during public events, and also the Catalan institutions of self-government were abolished.
La Caixa Catalan pronunciation: Caja de Ahorros y Pensiones de Barcelona , is Spain's third largest fiscal institution, with a network of finished 5, branches, more than 9, automated teller machines , a workforce in excess of 31, and more than 13 million customers.
From the start, La Caixa focused on savings object of families and offering its customers preservation in their old length of existence, when that type of social equipment did not yet eke out a living in Spain. Owing to its origins, it is a monetary institution, albeit not profit and charitable and social in nature, with a surreptitiously board of trustees Limited, independent of any other company or institution.
Similarly, the Band has a portfolio of industrial interests in companies mainly in the infrastructure, energy and communications sectors.
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Catalonia has paid an economic price for the flurry of political activity by the pro-independence movement in October. After a frantic month bookended by an illegal independence referendum on October 1 and a unilateral declaration of independence in the regional parliament on October 27, business creation had dropped Sacked Catalan premier Carles Puigdemont has criticized large firms and sided with small and medium-sized enterprises.
Spain as a whole chalked up a 1. It is also the second-worst figure for this year to date for the region after September, and the third worst year-on year result in Spain behind Extremadura and Galicia, which saw falls of At the other end of the scale, the number of new businesses in La Rioja was up Meanwhile, far from attempting to woo back the large firms that have left Catalonia in recent months, ousted Catalan premier Carles Puigdemont has turned his attention to small and medium-sized enterprises.
The 1, new businesses in Catalonia is the worst October figure for the region since The CDC had close links with the Catalan business community. English version by George Mills. Madrid 13 DIC - PerizHilton
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At this time, though united by marriage, the Crowns of Castile and Aragon maintained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, parliaments, and laws. Retrieved 6 January Despite the fact that the most popular sports are represented outside by the Spanish national teams, Catalonia can officially play as itself in some others, like korfball , futsal or rugby league. Archived from the original on 19 October List of airports in Catalonia.
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